Monthly Archives: April 2011

Audio Peak Level Indicator By Op-Amp

ARTIKEL ELEKTRONIKA

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simple circuit PEAK indicator of foliage of the musical signal. This circuit was designed to provide a valuable test equipment tool for sound reinforcement systems like sound amplifiers and the like. The circuit is formed by an input buffer and ac to dc voltage converter (IC1A) feeding a window comparator (IC2A, IC2B, IC2C) which illuminates one of three LEDs at a time.

Audio Peak Level Indicator By Op-AmpSkema Rangkaian Audio Peak Level Indicator By Op-Amp

No setup is required: if correct values are used for resistors R3 to R7, LED D1 will illuminate at 0dB input (0.775V RMS), LED D2 at +5dB input (1.378V RMS) and LED D3 at +10dB (2.451V RMS).

The circuit was optimized for low current consumption as it was intended for battery operation. To achieve this, the best arrangement has proven to be the one using two different op-amp types for IC1 and IC2. In fact the LM393 IC was not operating satisfactorily as dot-mode LED driver, whereas the LM324 was unable to charge C2 in the linear way, as expected. Therefore, the final circuit is some op-amp wasting, but the small added cost will be quickly compensated by battery savings.

List Component:

R1    : 300K         D1,D2,D3 : LEDs
R2 : 1M2 IC1 : LM393
R3 : 510K IC2 : LM324
R4 : 220K IC3 : 78L05
R5 : 91K SW1 : SPST Toggle or Slider Switch
R6 : 160K B1: 9V PP3 Battery
R7 : 56K
R8,R9 : 100R
R10 : 220R
C1 : 100nF
C2 : 1µF/63V
C3 : 10µF/25V
Iklan

Emergency Light and Alarm circuit

ARTIKEL ELEKTRONIKA

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This is a simple and easy emergency light and alarm circuit. This circuit is permanently plugged into a mains socket and NI-CD batteries are trickle-charged. When a power outage occurs, the lamp automatically illuminates. Instead of illuminating a lamp, an alarm sounder can be chosen.

When power supply is restored, the lamp or the alarm is switched-off. A switch provides a “latch-up” function, in order to extend lamp or alarm operation even when power is restored.

Emergency Light and Alarm circuit diagram

Component parts list:

R1 = 220K
R2 = 470R
R3 = 390R
R4 = 1K5
R5 = 1R
R6 = 10K
R7 = 330K
R8 = 470R
R9 = 100R
C1 = 330nF/400V Polyester Capacitor
C2 = 10µF/63V Electrolytic Capacitor
C3 = 100nF/63V Polyester Capacitor
C4 = 10nF/63V Polyester Capacitor
D1-D5 = 1N4007
D6 = LED Green
D7 = 1N4148
Q1,Q3,Q4 = BC547
Q2,Q5 = BC327
SW1,SW2 = SPST Switches
SW3 = SPDT Switch
LP1 = 2.2V or 2.5V 250-300mA Torch Lamp Bulb
SPKR = 8 Ohm Loudspeaker
B1 = 2.5V Battery (two AA NI-CD rechargeable cells wired in series)
PL1 = Male Mains plug

Circuit Works:
Mains voltage is reduced to about 12V DC at C2’s terminals, by means of the reactance of C1 and the diode bridge (D1-D4). This avoids the use of a mains transformer.

Trickle-charging current for the battery B1 is provided by the series resistor R3, D5 and the green LED D6 that also monitors the presence of mains supply and correct battery charging.
Q2 & Q3 form a self-latching pair that start operating when a power outage occurs. In this case, Q1 biasing becomes positive, so this transistor turns on the self latching pair.

If SW3 is set as shown in the circuit diagram, the lamp illuminates via SW2, which is normally closed; if set the other way, a square wave audio frequency generator formed by Q4, Q5 and related components is activated, driving the loudspeaker.

If SW1 is left open, when mains supply is restored the lamp or the alarm continue to operate. They can be disabled by opening the main on-off switch SW2.

If SW1 is closed, restoration of the mains power supply terminates lamp or alarm operation, by applying a positive bias to the Base of Q2.

Notes:

  • Close SW2 after the circuit is plugged.
  • Warning! The circuit is connected to 230Vac mains, then some parts in the circuit board are subjected to lethal potential!. Avoid touching the circuit when plugged and enclose it in a plastic box.

Emergency Light and Alarm circuit source: http://www.redcircuits.com/Page45.htm